Experience Greece Post Congress Tours
Post Congress Tours
Samos island “Eupalinos” Tunnel
The “Eupalinos tunnel” is a bored tunnel 1036m long. Ιt is estimated that 8-10 years were required to complete the project. Τhe maximum overburden of the tunnel is ~ 170 m below the summit of the Kastro mountain and its elevation is 55m above sea level. The tunnel consists of a corridor having internal dimensions 1.80×1.80m and of a ditch 0.60m wide. The depth of the ditch ranged from 4.0m in its northern section to 8.9m in its southern one. The radual differentiation of the ditch’s depth provided the necessary longitudinal inclination for the ceramic pipe to convey water by means of gravitational flow. The ditch itself wasn’t xcavated as an open trench at its full length, but portions of it are galleries running underneath the main tunnel. The astonishing thing about the opening of the tunnel is that the hard limestone was hewn out simultaneously from both sides (north and south), and two crews of stonemasons, working with hammers and chisels, met with almost no deviation from a straight line. Hence, the most remarkable point of the tunnel is the breakthrough (meeting) point of the two excavations. This was done ~170m below the apex of mount Kastro and as proved in the architectural study, was selected based on mathematical reasoning. The excavation arrangement, took into account the possibility of a horizontal and a longitudinal mistake in the excavation directions: the last ~ 40m of the south bore were constructed kinked eastwards making that way a “waiting wall” for the north bore excavation end to come. The archaeological study has identified seven marking and measuring systems used by Eupalinos to implement the alignment during construction.
These systems cover the entire tunnel length and have been deciphered/proved and extensively described in the archaeological study of Hermann Kienast. Another remarkable achievement of the use of applied geometry in the tunnel construction is the triangular deviation of the excavation at the north tube; this was made for the tunnel to avoid the adverse water-bearing soft ground conditions and the subsequent need to construct the arduous lining. The lack of lighting within the tunnel was overcome with oil lamps, which of course made ventilation difficult. When one considers that during that era there were no mechanical means available, the uniqueness grand scale of this project can be understood
The Catacombs of Milos island
The Catacombs of Milos are a historical site located in Milos island, in Cyclades, Greece. They are found near the modern settlement of Trypiti, next to the site of the agora of the ancient city of Milos and 200 m to the east of the ancient theatre. The name Trypiti (Τρυπητή, “made with holes [τρύπες]”) derives from the fact that the surrounding area is full of caves cut into the porous volcanic rock, which are still used by the inhabitants as storerooms and stables. In ancient times, however, these caves were used as family burial chambers.
The galleries are of differing widths, ranging from 1 to 5 metres in width and from 1.6 to 2.5 metres in height. In addition to the tombs cut into the walls, there are also many graves cut into the ground and covered with unworked stones of irregular sizes.
Vagonetto - Fokis Mining Park & Delphi
Vagonetto is a unique thematic park, where you will have the opportunity to follow the lives of miners and visit a real underground gallery. This visit will be combined with the visit of Delphi, one of the most famous archaeological sites of Greece, known in ancient times the navel of the world. Pass by Castalia Springs, visit at the archaeological site and view the monument of the Argive Kings, the treasury of the Athenians, the Athenian Stoa, the Polygonal Wll, the monument of Platea and the Temple of Apollo famous for its oracle and Delphi museum, with its spectacular exhibits which include the frieze of the Treasury of the Sifnians, the Naxian Sphinx, the Statue of Antinoos the metopes of the Athenian treasury, the famous bronze Charioteer, originally created to commemorate a victory during the 476 B.C. Pythian Games, and many other artifacts.
Santorini Cave Dwellings
One of the major reasons why the island of Santorini stands out is its distinctive architecture. Along with its other special characteristics they compose the extraordinary beauty that
makes Santorini unique. Underground buildings such as houses, churches, canaves and warehouses are the traditional buildings of the island. They are the ones that characterize the unique beauty of the island despite the unrealistic architecture. Due to it’s geographic position Santorini has always been an important center of shipping in the Mediterranean. Until the beginning of the 20th century there even was a wharf in the bay of Armeni underneath Oia with a fleet of approx. 130 sailing boats, for traveling and trading. This is why shipowners and their crews used to live in this area. For the crew members who mostly because of poverty where not able to build their houses on top of the hill, the peculiarity of the volcanic terrain of Santorini offered a much cheaper alternative: it allowed the inhabitants to carve most of a building or even the entire one in the earth. The caves were the small and the poor homes of Santorini usually consisted of only one room. They were cave-like residences, oblong, carved into the Theraic earth, without foundations, with a vaulted ceiling and a narrow façade. The cooking place was outside to prevent the smoke disturbance. The layer of Theraic earth also contains pumice, a very porous, froth-like igneous rock and a bad conductor of heat and sound, so the Santorini cave houses are kept warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Important is their great resistance to earthquakes. The toilet was normally in a separate room outside the house, reachable over several steps. In the empty space created underneath, the sewage was collected and transported to the fields to be used as fertilizer. The only source of water was the “cistern”, where rainwater that fell into the yard or the roof and passed through the gutters and collected. As a filter, they used small sticks tied in a bunch which were placed in the gutters. These houses of the poorest citizens turned into traditional yet modernized villas and suites because their view is of great value today